Journal Transition Studies Review <p align="justify"><span style="color: black; font-family: Kepler Std; font-size: x-large;">T</span>ransition Studies Research Network was founded in 2002 as CEEUN-Central Eastern European University Cooperation, with the aim to connect a group of experts and university faculty in a program of cooperation devoted to research programs and specialized international postgraduate and doctoral courses. The Network has grown fast and soon after the scientific “voice” was established with the Journal Transition Studies Review, published initially by the CEEUN, then by Egea - Bocconi University Press, and finally by Springer Wien-New York.</p> en-US <p align="justify">The author gives permission to Transition Academia Press to publish the article in print and/or electronic format.</p> <p align="justify">If/when an article is accepted for publication, Author will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to Transition Academia Press. Transition Academia Press will retain copyright of all published material and reserves the right to re-use any such material in any print and/or electronic format. Author willing to retain their copyright from the Editors might request a fair condition, on the base of a bilateral agreement.</p> <div><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /> <div> <p> </p> </div> </div> (Prof. Giorgio Dominese) (Editorial Staff) Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Tax Incentives and the Location of FDI. Evidence from a Panel Data in Balkan Countries <p>This study aims to investigate the impact of taxation on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia), for the period 2005-2018. Using the empirical analysis method, we find that FDI net inflows are influenced by the tax regime of the host countries.</p><p>Our empirical results suggest that a reduction in “corporate tax rate” and “total tax and contribution rate in % of profit”, would lead the increase in FDI net inflow in the Balkan countries. So, on the contrary, the higher the “corporate tax rate” and “total tax and contribution rate in % of profit”, are, the greater the reduced FDI net flow is. Our results also suggest that the increase of “real GDP rate” and “tax revenue in % of GDP” have a positive impact on the increase of FDI net inflow in the Balkan countries.</p><p> </p><p> </p> Flora Merko, Klodian Muço Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Economic Impact of Institutional Quality on Environmental Performance in Post-Soviet Countries <p>Maintaining the balance between economic growth and environmental performance is a new trend of challenges for developing countries. The economic impact of institutional quality on environmental performance is analyzed from 2001 to 2017 using multinational panel data for 15 Post Soviet-Countries. The indicators of institutional quality are government effectiveness and regulatory quality and this research is first of its kind utilizing a comprehensive Environmental Performance Index as an empirical paper for post-Soviet-Countries. This study has utilized an instrumental variable method in Generalized Method of Moments, in order to introduce dynamics and then check for endogeneity. Other controlling factors include GDP per capita, industrial manufacturing, energy efficiency, urbanization, and secondary education. The results indicate that institutional quality have a significant positive impact on environmental performance. It is suggested that the post-Soviet-Countries must ensure better institutions in order to sustain an environment for future generations.</p> Shukrillo Abduqayumov, Noman Arshed, Samra Bukhari Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 The right to strike in post-soviet countries: reflections on the impact of international labour law <p>The article is devoted to the problems of realization of the right to strike in Belarus and Russia. The article considers the conception of strike in Russia and Belarus. The strike procedure is analyzed in detail. The authors have revealed a number of problems in the organization of the strike: in holding the strike in a structural division of the organization, in making a decision on holding the strike, in notifying the employer of the planned strike, in suspending the strike, etc.</p><p>It is rather difficult for employees to exercise the right to strike and after the collapse of the USSR, there has been no legitimate strikes in the independent Republic of Belarus.</p><p>The article provides statistical data. The article analyses the compliance of the national legislation of Belarus and Russia with international standards. The authors estimate the influence of international organizations on the change of labour legislation in Russia and Belarus. The judicial practice on cases of recognition of strikes as illegal is considered. The practice of the European Court of Human Rights is analysed.</p>The authors consider if the right to strike can indeed be protected in Russia and Belarus through bringing claims to international human rights bodies and through the help of ILO. Elena Sychenko, Elena Volk Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Problems of Labour Legislation Codification in Belarus and Ukraine: History, Current Situation and Prospects <p>Taking into account the general historical past (up to the 1990s), the paper examines current issues of codification and improvement of labour legislation in Belarus and Ukraine. The first part of the article briefly analyzes three global reforms of the Labour code of Belarus that took place in 2007-2008, 2014 and 2019-2020. Based on the generalization of legal and technical features of these three reforms, both negative trends in the development of labour law in Belarus and positive features associated with increased flexibility in regulating labour relations were identified. The second part of the paper examines the current situation of labour legislation in Ukraine, its non-compliance with the realities of the market economy. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the draft of law "On labour", submitted by the Government to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in 2019.</p> Kirill Leonidovich Tomashevski, Oleg Nikolaevich Yaroshenko Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Abolition of a Trade Barrier: the Case of the EU Milk Quota and the Chinese Market <p>Milk is among the most produced and valuable agricultural commodities worldwide, representing 10% of global agricultural output and 65% of total dairy production. The global trade of milk and milk products accounts for 5% of world trade of agricultural commodities. <br /> The European Union is the second milk producer worldwide and the largest milk exporter (with almost 30% of global exports). Because of an overall European decreasing milk consumption and a self-sufficiency rate higher than 100%, EU milk exports are increasing. <br /> China is among the main milk-deficit countries with an estimated self-sufficiency rate around 80% in 2017. Although it is expected to increase its milk production, because of the growth in consumption, fueled by population and GDP upward trends, and the not sufficient domestic supply, it remains the largest importer of dairy products worldwide. About 20% of milk and milk products imports worldwide are represented by China. China is the top extra-EU importer of milk with a 19% share of total extra-EU exports of milk. <br /> Among the market distortion policies, it is certainly worth mentioning the production quotas. Our case study focuses on the EU milk quotas, introduced by the CAP in 1984 to control the excess of supply in the market, and then removed in 2015 to liberalize the market.<br /> Starting from these premises, the aim of the paper is to understand whether the drop in milk prices following the EU milk quota removal has found a tradeoff with the rise of milk exports towards China.</p> Danilo Cavapozzi, Martina Mazzarolo, M. Bruna Zolin Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Discourse Study in the Postmodern Feminist International Relations The development of the theory of international relations has gone through several major changes, of which the most important one is the linguistic turn, and the struggle for and construction of discourse power is an important feature or proposition in the postmodern feminist theory. Language is no longer just the meaning of discourse and text, but essentially reflects a power transfer, discourse also means power, and language bears the carrier of power. Whoever has mastered the right to “speak” has the right to construct the behavior pattern. Postmodern feminist international relations theory is based on deconstruction, existentialism, anti-essentialism and anti-universalism. It advocates individual differences, marginal women’s demands and the mobility of subjectivity, which all reflect the diversity and flexibility of international political development. In order to fully understand the complete picture of international relations, we have retrieved the gender in the international community. This exploration can not only make us understand the important position of discourse in the postmodern feminist international relations theory more clearly, but also help scholars find a feasible path for the construction of feminist international relations theory. Yang Meijiao Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Impact of International Migration Flows on the European Union and Ukraine The paper presents the results of the research of the international migration process in the EU Member States that are destination countries for migrants from many countries including Ukrainians.<strong> </strong>The study discuses different approaches and methods analyzing migration process and comes to the point that econometric modeling based on panel data analysis is one of the most appropriate and useful tools in case of studying a group of countries, in this paper – the EU Member states. The article investigates economic and social factors that influence inward migration to the destination countries: Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Estonia, Italy, Spain, Germany, and Poland, which are deeply involved into migration process with the other European countries and non-EU countries, including Ukraine. It is revealed that immigration flows are highly dependent on GDP per capita and income level in the host countries. The results of the analysis have also shown that the role of migration flows in the socio-economic development of the EU and Ukraine is constantly increasing. This is due to both the quantitative increase in the number of recent immigrants in the EU countries and their percentage of total population, as well as to the growing influence of migrant activities on the socio-economic development of countries. At the same time, migrant remittances have a significant impact on economies of home countries. For instance, for Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro and Ukraine the migrant remittances inflows in 2019 exceeded 10% of national GDP. Giorgio Dominese, Sergey Yakubovskiy, Julia Tsevukh, Tetiana Rodionova Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Modern Globalization Peculiarities and Its Impact on Ukraine <p>Nowadays, there is a great impact of economic globalization on countries’ development, especially in the term of IT wide spreading throughout the world. The paper investigates current globalization peculiarities and its impact on the economy of Ukraine. <br /> Digital technologies bring new opportunities for the growth of national economies and its global competitiveness. Under the influence of globalization, the global economy is undergoing a dramatic transformation, driven by a new wave of technological innovation, which is now characterized as the fourth industrial revolution. Besides, globalization generates numerous risks to sustainable economic growth. In the context of globalization, many countries become extremely dependent on changes in the structure of international trade. Ukraine with increased openness to the outside world is interested in structural parameters of international exchange. <br />The paper discusses the problems of Ukrainian economy development and further digital transformation. Current production and export- import structure are revealed in the context of Ukrainian economy simplification to the structural characteristics of partner countries.</p> Olena Borzenko, Tamara Panfilova, Evgeniy Redzyuk, Anna Glazova Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 An Analysis of EU-China Agricultural Trade Relations in the Context of Brexit – the Perspective of Trade Specialisation Dynamics This paper uses trade data from 2001 to 2017 to analyse comparative advantage of both the EU27 (excluding the UK) and China by employing Balassa’s revealed comparative advantage index (BRCA) and the normalised revealed comparative advantage index (NRCA). Two broad types of trade specialisation dynamics have been analysed by using OLS regression analysis, together with Markov transition probability, Shorrocks’ mobility index, and regression trend analysis. The results show that the majority of the agricultural products are in the comparative disadvantage category, and that although the EU has a strong comparative advantage in several agricultural products, its probability to keep these advantages is lower than for China. Bernadette Andreosso-O’Callaghan, Junshi Li Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Islamic Financial Literacy: Evidence from Jordan <p>This study aims to test the extent of financial literacy in Islamic banking services in Jordan, and to test the effect of demographic variables: (gender, age, monthly income, region of residence, level of education, field of study, and occupation) on Islamic financial literacy via Ordered Logistic Regression, as well as, testing the differences in Islamic financial literacy among the averages of categories of demographic variables using non-parametric tests.</p><p>In order to achieve these goals, the study designed and distributed a questionnaire to a sample of 385 individuals from Jordan. The study found that 19.5% of Jordanians have a low level of Islamic financial literacy, 45.2% and 35.3% of Jordanians have an average and high level of Islamic financial literacy, respectively.</p><p>The study found a positive effect of the level of education, region of residence and the field of the study on the level of Islamic financial literacy. In which individuals with a higher educational qualification, “Humanities and Social Science” specialization, and individuals in northern and central Jordan possess a higher level of Islamic financial literacy. On the other hand, the study found a statistically significant difference between the averages of the categories: educational level, field of study, and region of residence.</p><p>Therefore, the study recommended the Central Bank of Jordan and the legislators to increase the general level of financial literacy and Islamic financial literacy in particular. Through, targeting segments that showed a low level of Islamic financial literacy. These results also have important implications for policy makers and academics.</p> Demeh Daradkah, Ahlam Aldaher, Haitham Shinaq Copyright (c) 2020 Journal Transition Studies Review Fri, 22 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200