Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Elderly Workers in Japan The Need for a New Approach

Philippe Debroux, Jacques Jaussaud, Julien Martine

Abstract


Under demographic pressures, efforts to delay labor market withdrawal have replaced early retirement policies as a management tool of labor supply in many countries. In Japan, as the country is facing a dramatic demographic transition, the employment of elderly workers up to the age of 65 has become mandatory since 2006.
This article discusses the recent developments in this field in Japan and their impact on the employment of elderly workers. It focuses more specifically on how the traditional win-win way of managing elderly employment is evolving under the impact of demographics, the socio-cultural context, the regulatory environment and the consequential need for changes in the social security system. Based on a case study of five Japanese companies, and on other research findings, this paper examines empirically how organisations in that country develop human resource management practices to cope with these environmental transformations and prolong employees’ work-life.


Keywords


Elderly workers;Population Ageing;Employment;Human Resources management;Japan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bussollo M, Koettl J, Sinnott E (2015), Golden Aging, The World Bank Group.

Debroux P (2013), Human Resource Management in Japan, in Managing Human Resources in Asia-Pacific; Varma, A. and Budhwar, P. (eds.), London: Routledge, p 105-128.

Debroux P (2016), Elderly workers in Japan: the need for a new deal, In: Management Rev, 27(1-2), Rainer Hampp Verlag.

Dittrich D, Busch V, Micheel F (2011) Working beyond retirement age in Germany: The employees perspective, In R. Ennals and R. H. Salomon (Eds.), Older workers in a sustainable society, pp. 189- 202. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Grund C, Westergaard-Nielsen N (2008) Age Structure of the Workforce and Firm Performance. International Journal of Manpower Vol. 29. No. 5, pp. 410–22

Hansen G, Imrohoroglu S (2013) Fiscal Reform and Government Debt in Japan: a Neoclassical Perspective. Working Paper w19431, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.

Heywood J, Jirjahn U (2016) The hiring and employment of older workers in Germany: A comparative perspective, J Labour Market Res, DOI 10.1007/s12651-015-0195-4, Springer.

Hozumi T (2013), German and Japanese labor market in Theo era of globalization, In: Arbeiten aus dem Forschungsinstitut für r Internationale Fragen der Aichi-Universität (2013), 1, pp. 88-109. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/ urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-355176

Imai J (2011), The Transformation of Japanese Employment Relations, London: Palgrave Macmillan.

International Labour Organisation, (2013), Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population: 1990 – 2030. Geneva: ILO.

Jaussaud J, Martine J (2017) L’emploi des seniors au Japon : enjeux et pratiques, Revue Interdisciplinaire Management, Homme & Entreprise n°27, juillet.

Kayanuma M (2010) Kōreisha koyō seisaku no hensen to genjō ni kansuru ikkōsatsu [Examination of the situation and developments in the measures for elderly workers’ employment], DISCUSSION PAPER No.48, December, Faculty of Economics, Sangyo University.

Kessler EM, Staudinger U (2007) Intergenerational Potential: Effects of Social Interaction between Older Adults and Adolescents. Psychology and Aging, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 690–704.

Kondo A (2016) Effects of increased elderly employment on other worker’s employment and elderly’s earnings in Japan, IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer Open Journal, 23p.

Loretto W, Vickerstaff S (2013) The domestic and gendered context for retirement. Human Relations, 66(1), pp. 65-86, DOI: 10.1177/0018726712455832.

Martine J (2011) La gestion des travailleurs seniors dans les economies matures. Une étude approfondie des pratiques développées par les entreprises japonaises, Sarrebruck: Éditions Universitaires européennes, 400 p.

Martine J (2012) L’emploi des seniors au Japon : un état des lieux du contexte et des pratiques, Ebisu, 48, 2012, pp.173-199.

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, (MHLW) (2014) Pension eligibility, www.mhlw.go.jp/dl/11e.pdf.

Martine J (2017) Nihon ni okeru kônenreisha koyô to jinjikanri [Employement and HRM praticies in Japan], Hikaku Nihongaku kyôiku kenkyû sentâ kenkyû nepô dai13 gô [Center for Comparative Japanese Studies Annual Bulletin n˚13], pp.127-131.

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) (2015a) The Act for Partial Revision of the Act on Improvement of the Employment Management for Part-Time Workers,

www.mhlw.go.jp/english/policy/employ-labour/fixed-term-workers/dl/140 711-01.pdf.

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) (2015b) Chingin kôzô kihon tôkeichôsa (Basic statistical survey on the composition of wages), http://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/itiran/roudou/chingin/kouzou/z2015/

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), (2016), « Heisei 28 nen “kônenreisha no koyô jôkyô” shûkei kekka »Result of the survey “situation of employment of seniors” of 2016, http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/houdou/0000140837.html

Ministry of Labour (1994) Rodo Hakusho: koyo antei o kiban toshita yutakana kinrosha seikatsu e no kadai (Labour white Paper: issues to achieve an affluent life for workers based on the employment security), Tokyo: Japan Institute of Labour.

Nabeta S (2011) 60 Saicho Shain no Sekkyoku Katsuyou Jirei (Cases of active utilization of the over 60 employees), Rosei Jiho, No. 3799, June 10, pp. 10-16.

OECD (2013) Pensions at a glance, Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Naito K (2009) Assaurance de soins de santé au Japon : au-delà de la vision binaire entre Etat et famille, Revue Internationale de Sécurité Sociale, vol. 62 (3): 55-84

OECD (2015) Economic Survey of Japan, Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Seike A (1998) Shogai Geneki Shakai no Joken (Conditions of creation of a life-active people’ society), Tokyo: Chukoshinsho.

Skirbekk V (2008) Age and Productivity Capacity: Descriptions, Causes, and Policy Options. Ageing Horizons Vol. 8, pp. 4–12.

Song, J. (2014) Inequality in the Workplace – Labor Market Reform in Japan and Korea, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Sueki (2013) Jitsurei ni miru Chingin Seido Kaikaku no Gutaisaku (Concrete policy of the wage reform seen from concrete cases), Chingin – Romu Tsushin, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 3 – 7.

Taylor P, Earl C (2016) Making the case for older workers, in Management Revue, 27(1-2), Rainer Hampp Verlag.

Ueda K (2012) Deleveraging and Monetary Policy: Japan since the the 1990s and the United States since 2007, Journal of Economic Perpectives, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 177-201

World Bank Group, (2015), Live Long and Prosper, Aging in East Asia and Pacific, World Bank East Asia and Pacific Regional Report.

Yamada A, Higo M (2015) Mandatory retirement in Japan: An overview of the past and present. In M. Higo and T. Klassen (eds.), Retirement in Japan and South Korea: The past, the present and the future of mandatory retirement, pp. 48-72. London: Routledge.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14665/1614-4007-24-2-004

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




"Transition Studies Review" ISSN online 1614-4015 / ISSN print 1614-4007

All publishing rigths reserved to © Transition Academia Press. Executive editor: Prof. Dr. Giorgio Dominese